Who Built Stonehenge, England

Stonehenge stones – Who built Stonehenge – Why did they built Stonehenge – Why traditional radiocarbon dating cannot really tell when Stonehenge was built – Stonehenge Cursus – Theories about Stonehenge – How to visit Stonehenge

If you talk about the most famous megalithic sites of the world, it is impossible not to mention Stonehenge. Stonehenge is a prehistoric monument, located at the Salisbury Plain in Wiltshire, England, just about two hours Southwest of London.

Stonehenge

Stonehenge Stones

Stonehenge today consists of concentric circles of stones. The outer ring is made of vertical sarsen stones, each around 13 feet tall and 7 feet wide and weighing around 25 tons each. On top of them lie other megaliths, which connect the tops of those stones. Apparently, they used to form a complete circle, but now they are broken in places. The ring inside of the outer ring consists of smaller bluestones. The following ring inside consists of sarsen trilithons: two standing stones and a horizontal stone joining them. Those inner sarsen stones are taller than the outer circle.

Stonehenge
The inner circle of the trilithons is taller than the outer one
Stonehenge

Sarsen is a dense hard rock that is made out of tightly pressed quartz crystals. It is found in large quantities on the chalk downs of Southern England. The large sarsen stones of Stonehenge were excavated about 15 miles north of Stonehenge. Smaller bluestones, however, came all the way from the Preseli Hills in Pembrokeshire, West Wales, which is about 180 miles from Stonehenge! Those stones are officially called Preseli Spotted Dolerite, which is dark and heavy rock, harder than granite. Nowadays these stones look grey, but freshly cut, they were deep blue.

Stonehenge Stones
Sarsen stones and blue stones (they look grey now, but when they were freshly cut, they had deep blue color)
Blue Stones
Blue stones on display at the Stonehenge Museum

Let’s Just Build Our Own Megalithic Structure!

Archeologists believe that Stonehenge was built about 3000 BCE by Neolithic farmers. Since the very beginning it was primarily used as a burial ground. Through the years it was re-built several times until it took its final form in about 1600 BCE.

However, I don’t think it is all that simple. Just think about this: prehistoric people had a pretty hard life. Yes, they were not merely hunter-gatherers, they knew agriculture, herded cattle, but still, what just caused them to suddenly start building an enormous engineering masterpiece. For what? For burying their dead? Not only did they need to quarry and transport the gigantic stones, they had to somehow put them in place and additionally align them to sunrise during the summer solstice and midwinter sunsets! Just why would they do that?

Stonehenge Orientation
Stonehenge Orientation
Stonehenge is aligned to midsummer sunrise…
The Heel Stone
…and midwinter sunset, which is marked by the Heel Stone

Maybe they were envious of Puma Punku and Tiwanaku and wanted their own megalithic monument? In the end, those sites in Bolivia also align with solstices… Did their buddies from Ollantaytambo send them a letter, teaching them how to use wooden rollers for the job?  Because the traditional archaeology says that both Inca and British settlers used those to transport the heavy megaliths.

To me, the most astonishing fact is not even that the prehistoric people would be able to build something like that, but that they would have absolutely the same idea as many nations all around the world, who were not supposed to have had any contact with each other.

Dwellings of the ancient British settlers
Replica of the houses of the local settlers
Dwellings of the ancient British settlers
The inside of those houses…
Stonehenge people
The reconstructed image of one of the settlers
Burial Mounds
The burial mounds all around Stonehenge
Stonehenge Stones
This is how the locals supposedly transported the stones

Why Did They Build Stonehenge?

So, in spite of the attempts of the archaeologists to explain how it was possible to build something like Stonehenge during the prehistoric times, I think, the main question anyone should ask themselves is not “how” but “why”.

Obviously, there should be something very significant for the locals to render the place sacred, worship there and bury their dead. No matter if they originally built it or not, they still continued to maintain it through the centuries. So, I think it was the other way around: Stonehenge was not built to create a burial ground, but the burial ground was established there because something as sacred as Stonehenge was already there.

Stonehenge
Stonehenge

For those who are familiar with the cargo cult phenomenon, the answer would be obvious: the only thing that would persuade people to hold something sacred is if something out of this world had happened there. For those people to witness something “divine” would probably be enough. So, could this place be something that gods used for their purpose? If so, could they have helped to create this place in the first place?

You Cannot Date Stone

When scientists say that the first Stonehenge was built about 3000 BCE, they base their argument on radiocarbon dating. However, you cannot date stone. What you can date is only organic material: bones, pottery, fabric… In the case of some of the stones, fragments of dirt around them were dated.

Stonehenge

However, even if there was constant evidence of activity around the monument, it really doesn’t prove that it was originally built at the same time. Scientists know that Stonehenge was re-built multiple times and the stones were rearranged. But just like Ollantaytambo, Saqsaywaman or some monolithic construction in the middle of Machu Picchu, it is possible that some parts of the structure were already there for who knows how many years. Obviously, when the ancient locals found them and maybe even saw gods using them, they immediately considered them sacred and built their life and their own structures around them for generations. This is the only thing we can date nowadays: the evidence of people worshipping, celebrating and living around the stones. Stonehenge itself might have been there even earlier. At least we know that some parts of it are a lot older, like the Stonehenge Cursus.

Stonehenge Cursus

Apparently, the stone circles were not the first structures at Stonehenge. Several hundred years before the stones, a rectangular ditch was constructed on the Salisbury Plain. It is about 2 miles long and about 350 feet wide. It is oriented towards sunrise during the spring and autumn equinoxes. It is believed to be strictly ceremonial, but I can’t help but wonder, why it so strikingly reminds me of Nazca Lines in Peru. Another coincidence?

Stonehenge Cursus
Stonehenge Cursus is hard to see from the ground

Theories About Who Built Stonehenge and Why

There are many theories as for who built Stonehenge. Some of them root deeply in folklore, which I find pretty natural, considering the mysterious nature of the structure. Tales say the monument was built by no other than the legendary wizard Merlin with the help of giants.

Stonehenge

Another version is that the stones were used by the extraterrestrials, either as a space port or a portal of some kind. In favor of this theory speaks the abundance of quartz, present in the sarsen stones, in fact, these stones are literally made out of quartz crystals. As we are well aware, where there is quartz, there is always a heightened level of UFO activity. San Luis Valley in Colorado is one of the best examples.

However, I personally tend to think that if anybody much more advanced than us used the stones, these would be our good old Anunnaki. They have been known to build megalithic structures from the get-go. They were known for their widespread use of lapis lazuli, which is also deep-blue in color, similar to dolerite, which was used in Stonehenge. If not Anunnaki, it could be created by Nephilim, the demi-god offspring of Anunnaki and humans. There is a theory that Merlin himself was one of the Nephilim.

But whoever built this magnificent monument, it was a lot bigger than we see now. Recently a lot larger concentric rings were discovered near Stonehenge, of which only the pits have remained. As if on purpose, another ring of pits have been found in Wales, not far from where the blue stones came from.  Some even suggest that Stonehenge itself first stood there and was later moved to the Wiltshire Plain. All this brings up the question: do we know everything about this monument or is there a lot more yet to discover? So maybe we should keep an open mind and not discard even the wildest theories.

Other Structures in the World Similar to Stonehenge

If anyone tells me: “Well, if there were indeed ancient gods/astronauts here on Earth, why didn’t they leave anything behind?  I would answer: “but they did!” Besides a lot of the smaller artifacts all over the world, such as Phaistos Disk, Saqqara Bird, Disk of Sabu, Fuente Magna, there are these enormous monolithic structures, such as Stonehenge, Saqsaywaman, Ollantaytambo, Tiwanaku and Puma Punku, the Egyptian Piramids, the Carnac Stones… The list goes on and on! I know people who would argue and say that the local people possessed enough knowledge and interest in building such structures, and maybe in some places they did, but not everywhere at once!  

Stonehenge

How to Visit Stonehenge

You can easily drive to Stonehenge if you have a car. See the ticket prices and opening times here.

If f you don’t have a car, your best bet would be to purchase a Stonehenge Tour, It includes a shuttle bus from Salisbury, the Stonehenge entrance ticket and, additionally, the entrance to the Old Sarum, a medieval castle that was built by William the Conqueror back in the 11th Century. For a small additional charge you can add the Salisbury Cathedral to the tour, where you can see one of the only four remaining Magna Carta documents.

And what do you think of Stonehenge? Who do you think built it and what was it used for? Do you think it was used by the extraterrestrials? Share in the comments!

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