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Anasazi and Their Mysterious Connection to the Sumerian Anunnaki

Who are Anasazi – History of the Anasazi – Cliff dwellings of the Anasazi – What is a kiva and sipapu, the portal of the gods – Chacoan culture – Similarities of Anasazi and other American Civilizations – Legends of the Anasazi – Who were “Ant People”? – Where the Ant People Anunnaki? – The most famous places where you can see Anasazi petroglyphs.

Since the ancient times, the American Southwest has been home to different Native American Tribes. They are known as the Ancestral Pueblo Indians, or Anasazi.

The name “Anasazi” has stuck to these ancient American groups, even though it is not entirely correct. Translated from Navajo, the word “Anasazi” means “the ancient enemy”.  There are several known descendant groups of Anasazi today, the most known of them include Taos, Zuni and Hopi Indians.

Anasazi Map

History of the Anasazi

The earliest record of the Ancestral Pueblo People comes 100 CE. Nothing is really known about those people except that they didn’t use clay at first, so they made baskets for everything. Hence the name: Basket Makers.  These people lived in pits and caves, which later became large underground dwellings.  After 750 CE their descendants started making villages above ground. They used stone and, apparently, around this period we can see the development of their religion. Anasazi started building ceremonial rooms called kivas and telling stories about the mysterious gods. Those gods came through a portal called Sipapu. According to those tales it was the gods, who long ago taught them agriculture, masonry, how to use bow and arrow and make beautiful pottery.

Mesa Verde National Park
Underground pits of the Ancestral Pueblo Indians

Cliff Dwellings of the Anasazi

No one knows exactly why, but around 1150 CE some of the ancient Puebloans moved from their villages to the dangerous cliff dwellings along canyons walls. Perhaps it was their way to protect themselves from invading Navajo and Apache. Anasazi were small and agile people. It seemed to be easy for them to climb back and forth to the top of the canyon. They had to do it practically every day to tend to their crops.  See these little holes in the rock between the structures? Those were their “stairs”. Interestingly, you see similar stairs in Machu Picchu. You can still climb the old Inca “stairs” there.

Mesa Verde National Park
“Stairs” that Ancestral Pueblo people used for climbing around their dwellings

The cliff dwellings were extensive! For example, the Square Tower House in Mesa Verde consists of about 80 rooms which go deep into the mountain. The Cliff Palace boasts more than 150 rooms and multiple kivas. It’s truly a miracle of construction, considering the location!

Mesa Verde National Park
The Square Tower House, Mesa Verde, Colorado
Mesa Verde National Park
The Cliff Palace, Mesa Verde, Colorado
Anasazi Dwellings
The Cliff Palace. Photo by National Park Service, Public Domain

Around 1300 CE, almost all the tribes of Anasazi abandoned their communities and moved elsewhere. The official explanation is the Great Draught that happened around 1276 (according to tree ring studies). Another explanation is attack by other hostile tribes. In any case, all these reasons are only theories and no one can really tell with certainty, why they just got up and left everything behind. 

Sipapu, a Portal of the Gods

The center of a Puebloan family, be it a traditional village or cliff dwellings, was a kiva. A kiva is sort of a round “family room” and it’s also a ceremonial center, something like a temple.

Kiva Plan
Kiva at the Cliff Palace, Mesa Verde/ photo by Adam Lederer, CC: BY-NC-SA 2.0

There was typically a firepit in the center, a place for a foot drum next to it, which was a necessary element for celebrations, and a circular depression in the floor, “Sipapu“. According to Pueblo legends, Sipapu was a “door” to the realm of the gods, an inter-dimensional portal for traveling to and from our world. Is it a coincidence that Puerta de Hayu Marca in Peru has the same hole in the middle of the doorway? The famous door is also believed to be a portal of the gods. Could it be the “original Sipapu”?

Mesa Verde and Aramu Muru
A mysterious circular depression at the Portal of Aramu Muru, Peru vs Sipapu in Anasazi culture


Another question that pops into my head is “why is a kiva so perfectly round?” The Indians lived in regular rectangular dwellings, but a kiva always has a perfectly circular shape. The tour guides say: it comes from the first “pits” they built and the tradition remained. However, in Chaco Canyon I talked to a construction engineer with 30 years of experience and he said “it’s extremely difficult to build a perfectly round building, especially without any measurement tools”. I believe, to continue the effort to preserve the round shape takes more than just preserving a tradition. It had to have a lot deeper religious significance.

Chacoan Culture

The inhabitants of Chaco Canyon are possibly the most striking example of the unusual choices of living quarters of the Anasazi. When we came to Chaco Canyon, we quickly realized that there should have been very strong reasons to build in such a harsh environment. Not much water, excruciating heat in summer and freezing nights… Why? The only plausible explanation is a strong belief that these lands were sacred. Usually in history, a land becomes sacred if once upon a time gods had arrived there.

And so, just next to Pueblo Bonito, which is the largest excavated site not only in Chaco Canyon but the whole Anasazi culture, stands Fajada Butte. It is a sacred mountain with a flat top, where the ancient Chacoans watched the stars and the sun movements. Could it be where the gods landed?

Fajada Butte, Chaco Canyon, New Mexico
Fajada Butte
Chaco Canyon, New Mexico
Pueblo Bonito, Chaco Canyon, New Mexico
Chaco Canyon, New Mexico
Pueblo Bonito, Chaco Canyon, New Mexico

Similarities of Anasazi and Other American Civilizations

After learning more about Anasazi culture, it’s impossible not to notice many similarities between Anasazi and Mesoamerican, and even South American civilizations.  There is evidence that there was trade between these nations. But even then, the similarities are so striking, that it is obvious: they had the same gods (just different names), the same “teachers”. They have the same stories and legends, the same spirits (for example, Kokopelli). They had the same symbols: a circular depression signified a “portal” to the realm of gods, just like Inca had. Spirals are ever-present in practically all the ancient civilizations, all over the world…

Just like other American cultures, Anasazi were good in astronomy. They, too, built towers for star observations or used sacred flat-top mountains. Why would they do it? For agriculture? Seems like an overreach. They had far more important chores, but they still did it, literally, religiously. Perhaps they were trying to calculate the return of the gods?

Anasazi Petroglyphs, Chaco Canyon, New Mexico
Spirals are everywhere…
Anasazi Petroglyphs, Chaco Canyon, New Mexico
Anasazi petroglyphs at Chaco Canyon
Anasazi Petroglyphs, Chaco Canyon, New Mexico
Anasazi petroglyphs at Chaco Canyon

And their disappearance: in spite of all the official explanations, they were not the first who suddenly left everything behind. Could their real reason to disappearance be similar to why Maya did the same back in 900 CE?

Legends of the Anasazi

Just like Mesoamerica and South America, Ancestral Pueblo people have legends of white bearded people. They came to teach them different skills, they left petroglyphs, depicting strange figures with helmets and antennae… They, too, worshipped a feathered serpent. Their creation myth has blood-chilling similarities not only to Maya, Inca and Aztec stories. It goes all the way back to the first civilization on the planet: Ancient Sumeria. Surprising? Not really… There are multiple accounts, that Sumerian gods Anunnaki were frequent visitors to the Americas and possibly even fled there after the fall of Sumer.

According to Anasazi, at the beginning, there were Tawa (or Taiowa), the sun god, the Creator. He created the First World that had no shape and existed only in his mind. So he created Sotuknang, whom he called his nephew and instructed him to make land and sea. In turn, Sotuknang created the Spider Woman and put her in charge of creating life.

Out of earth and her saliva she created two brothers:  Poqanghoya and Palongawhoya, who later were dispatched to the North and South poles to take care of the Earth rotation (are they the same entities as the Maya Hero Twins?). Then Spider Woman made all the plants, birds, animals and finally, four pairs of humans. These humans could talk to her and the Creator through the openings in their foreheads (third eye?). The only commandment was that those first humans live in harmony and respect their creator.

But as it often happens, people multiplied and forgot this commandment. So the Creator decided that this First World was no good and destroyed it. Only the chosen few, who still remembered him, were told to travel across land, following a cloud or a star (similar to the Biblical Exodus?). With the help of Sotuknang, they found the refuge underground with the “Ant People”.

Anasazi Petroglyphs, Chaco Canyon, New Mexico
Anasazi petroglyphs at Chaco Canyon
Anasazi Petroglyphs, Chaco Canyon, New Mexico
Anasazi petroglyphs at Chaco Canyon

Finally, when the Second World was complete, the people could come out and continue their lives. They multiplied rapidly and many, once again, forgot the Creator. The angry god discharged Poqanghoya and Palongawhoya from their posts and spun the earth out of control (similar to the ancient pole-shift theory?). As the result of this catastrophe, the mountains and the lakes were destroyed and the earth froze. (Ice Age?)

Once again, Sotuknang sent people to dwell with the “ants”, while making the Third World. This time is parallel to the beginning of civilization as we know it. The legend says that people started developing into nations and lived in big cities. Soon they started to go to war with one another. And just like before, the Creator was disappointed and destroyed this world, this time with a flood (which is a totally worldwide account and is mentioned in all the world civilizations). Only the chosen few were saved by Sotuknang, who later led them to the Fourth World. This time the people were given the vast lands and valleys along the Colorado River and Rio Grande River.

Anasazi Petroglyphs, Chaco Canyon, New Mexico
Anasazi petroglyphs at Chaco Canyon
Inca and Mogollon
Similarity between Inca art at The Sun Temple (Ollantaytambo, Peru) and Mogollon petroglyphs at Three Rivers Petroglyph Site

When you read this creation myth, you can undoubtedly see parallels to Sumerian texts, Mesoamerican texts, the Bible and even actual historic events. There are too many coincidences to consider it just a made up legend. This brings up a question: who were these mysterious Ant People who kept saving the ancient humans from all kinds of disasters?

The Ant People

So, according to Anasazi myths, the Ant People were a group of gods who gave civilization skills to the ancient tribes and helped and protected them throughout history.

Ever since our trips through Maya cities and later Peru, I was fascinated by the idea that people from the Old World had traveled to the New World thousands of years before Columbus… Why? The official theory states that there were no contacts between these parts of the world ever since “the ancient humans crossed the Bering Straits 20,000 years ago”…

Anywhere you go in Peru, you hear the stories about these tall, white-skinned and red-haired “gods” with beards, who came from across the sea. They taught native men agriculture, astronomy, architecture…They had elongated skulls, some of which have been found and are currently displayed at the Paracas History Museum.


The DNA tests showed that those mysterious red-haired people came from the Middle East. Same thing happened to Maya civilization: Kukulkan/Quetzalcoatl, the white-skinned  god, also known as Feathered or Winged Serpent for his ability to fly, came to them and gave them the necessary skills to create their civilization. All these gods later went away and promised to return. So did the Anasazi gods. One of them has a great representation in the Anasazi legends: Pahana, the True White Brother. This god has very similar characteristics as Kukulcan/Quetzalcoatl or South American Kon Tiki. It’s obvious that these entities were the same “family”, or probably even the same person!

Petroglyph National Monument
Anasazi petroglyphs at the Petroglyph National Monument, Albuquerque, New Mexico
Petroglyph National Monument
Anasazi petroglyphs at the Petroglyph National Monument, Albuquerque, New Mexico
Petroglyph National Monument
Anasazi petroglyphs at the Petroglyph National Monument, Albuquerque, New Mexico
Mogollon Petroglyphs at Three Rivers Petroglyph Site
Mogollon petroglyphs at the Three Rivers Petroglyph Site, New Mexico

Were the Ant People the Ancient Sumerian Gods Anunnaki?

So, who were these “Ant People”? The legend tells us that before they engaged in helping Anasazi in every step of the way and saving them from natural disasters underground, these mysterious beings came from the stars. They were obviously not insects, they were pretty anthropomorphic, according to how they were depicted on multiple petroglyphs. Why were they called “Ant” People?  I believe, the answer lies in the wrong translation. Alas, it’s already proven that this mistake had been made to a lot of ancient texts…

Petroglyphs in Utah
Anasazi petroglyphs at the Horseshoe Canyon, Utah/photo by Michael Grindstaff, CC BY-SA 3.0

The thing is, in the Hopi language “Ant People” translates as “Anu Sinom“, where “Anu” is “Ant” and “Sinom” is “People”. For example, “Hopi People” would be “Hopi Sinom”.

So, the linguists translated the word “Anu” as “Ant”. They were obviously not familiar with the Sumerian history, where Anu is a proper name of the supreme god: the father and grandfather of all the Anunnaki, the “royal family” of the original gods on Earth. These gods were highly advanced extraterrestrials, which were known to tinker with the human race since the beginning of time, to shape it according to their needs.

So, if we can turn “Ant People” into “People of Anu“, we will see the big picture. At some point, people of Anu, or Anunnaki, traveled to South America, to Mesoamerica and also here, to the Four Corners Region… When and why did they do it? If you draw a timeline between Mesopotamia and the New World, it happened about the same time as the Sumerian Civilization started to collapse.

It’s not a coincidence that the main god of the New World was called a Winged or Feathered Serpent. From Mesopotamian legends we know that the whole lineage of the Sumerian god Enki and his descendants has a winged serpent as their symbol. Right before the fall of Sumer, Enlil and Enki’s clans led violent battles over power, which ended in massive destruction and some even say, nuclear war.

When it was said and done, and Alexander the Great conquered the old stomping grounds of the Anunnaki, they were no longer there. They moved to the New World. You can see where Enki’s influence was prevalent (North and Mesoamerica). Enlil’s clan (for example, Viracocha) settled around their old cities, Tihuanaku and Puma Punku. They didn’t even have to start anew, as they had been mining tin in those regions for thousands of years, attributing to the Bronze Age. Yahweh was rising to power in the Middle East. I assume, he was of Enlil’s clan, because since about that time, Enki’s “serpent” becomes equal to devil.

And last but not least, just look at some of the Anasazi rock art, and you can easily find Sumerian planetary symbols. Those symbols would later surface all over the place, including Christianity, but this is a theme for another post…

Similarity between symbols of the world
Similarity of Ancestral Puebloan, Sumerian and early Christian symbols

Where Can You See the Petroglyphs of Native American Tribes

The legacy of the Anasazi is scattered across the whole American Southwest. Possibly the best petroglyphs are the ones not yet discovered… Just open your eyes! They are everywhere. These are only the most famous places:

  • Mesa Verde (Colorado)
  • Chaco Canyon (New Mexico)
  • Petroglyph National Monument (Albuquerque, New Mexico)
  • Anasazi Ridge (Utah)
  • Horseshoe Canyon (Utah)
  • Canyon de Chelly (Arizona)
  • Painted Rock Petroglyph Site (Arizona)
  • Sears Point Petroglyph Site (Arizona).
  • Sego Canyon (Utah)
  • Newspaper Rock (Utah)
  • The Three Rivers Petroglyph Site (New Mexico)
Anasazi Petroglyphs, Mesa Verde National Park
Anasazi petroglyphs at Mesa Verde, Colorado

And do you know any other cool places with Anasazi petroglyphs? Do you think Anunnaki visited the Ancestral Pueblo people in the ancient times? Or were those beings something else? Who are the Anasazi gods and who are the ant people? Please share in the comments!

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One thought on “Anasazi and Their Mysterious Connection to the Sumerian Anunnaki

Add yours

  1. Very well thought out and written. I may not believe every word, but you present very good arguments. I love these articles. Thanks!


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